Sunday, May 24, 2020

Flower Shop Chemistry Magic Trick Violets

In this chemistry magic trick, youll produce the odor of violets by mixing two common chemicals. This demonstration is also known as the flower shop magic trick. Materials Sodium carbonate and castor oil are sold at many stores. Sodium carbonate is used in cooking and as a water softener. Castor oil usually is sold in the pharmacy section. Sodium carbonateCastor oil Perform the Trick This is a terrific chemistry demonstration because the materials are common and inexpensive and its extremely quick and easy to perform: In a dry test tube or small beaker, add a scoop of sodium carbonate and 3 drops of castor oil.Heat the container in a burner flame or on a hot plate until a cloud of white vapor rises from the chemicals.Walk around the room with the glassware to allow the fragrance to dissipate. The odor of violets is evident. How It Works When sodium carbonate and castor oil are heated together, one of the products is ionone. Although it is a simple demonstration, this is a fairly complicated reaction, in which citral and acetone with calcium oxide catalyze an aldol condensation followed by a rearrangement reaction. A mixture of alpha and beta-ionone is responsible for the characteristic odor of violets. Beta ionone is a component of the fragrance responsible for the scent of roses, too. Natural or synthetic ionone is used in many perfumes and flavorings. In flowers, ionones derive from the degradation of carotenoids, which are pigment molecules. An interesting property of violets is that they are responsible for another type of chemical magic. Violets temporarily steal your sense of smell! Initially, ionone binds to scent receptors and stimulates them, so you smell the odor of violets. Then, for a few moments, the receptors are unable to receive a further stimulus. You lose awareness of the fragrance, only to regain it when it registers as a new smell. Whether you like the scent of violets or not, its a scent that cant become overpowering or fade with time.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Crime And Social Implications Of Crime - 913 Words

Criminology is a subject that covers an enormous variety of topics, but one common theme that can be found in most is the issue of morality. Personal and societal morals affect what is considered criminal, and the extent of criminality. Most illegal actions are deemed as such because they clash with moral values. When studying criminology, it is important to also observe how crime is viewed in society, who crime affects and how victims of crime are impacted, and why crimes and victims are viewed in the ways they are. Before the moral and social implications of crime can be thought about, there is the simpler task of tracking crime in general. Crime can be measured in various ways using different methods. In Canada, crime is recorded from two main sources, from the police and from the victims/general population. In 1962, Canada put into place the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (UCR). The UCR aims to provide â€Å"police-reported crime statistics that were complete, accurate, and standardized to facilitate temporal (time-to-time) and spatial (place-to-place) comparisons,† (Reed, 2008, as cited in Morden Palys, 2014, p. 77). The system was slowly improved upon beginning in the 1980s, and was only 100% in effect since 2009 (Morden Palys, 2014, p. 86). The UCR is useful for gaining insight into crime statistics and compiling them into a big picture view. However, as new crimes and crime categories emerge, previous data must be improved upon to fit with these changes. NewShow MoreRelatedSolvin g The Consensus And Conflict Model942 Words   |  4 Pagesdistinguish the difference between the two models. According to the textbook â€Å"Criminal Justice Today† the consensus model is defined as a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system’s components work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice and the conflict model is defined as a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system’s components function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this theoretical framework, justice is more a productRead MoreSocial Control Theory And Social Control1675 Words   |  7 Pages Social control crime is one of the three sociological viewpoints of contemporary criminology. Sociologists believe that an abiding social rule is generated and maintained by relationships with people and institutions - family members, friends, schools and work. In short, crime and bad behavior can occur when personal and social relationships are flimsy or easy to break. As social security increases, the cost of individual’s crime also rises a lot. In the book of The New Jim Crow mentions that poorRead MorePolicing Perspective: Theory and Application679 Words   |  3 Pagesparticular social functions that makes it a necessity in any given social order. As a fundamental aspect of social order, policing can be conducted by various processes and institutional arrangements or plans. In most cases, policing is carried out by the police, which is a state-organized specialist organization. Due to its incorporation of social functions and use for social order, the concept of policing is regarded more as a social idea that is similar to the general idea of social control. HoweverRead MoreCauses Of Crime : Theory Reflection1680 Words   |  7 PagesCauses of Crime: Theory Reflection There are rarely simple answers when it comes to human behavior. Criminological theories have evolved greatly over the years as new measuring tools have become available, more communication pathways available for researchers to work together, and as the world has changed and advanced in numerous ways. The platform of criminal theories has evolved from primarily focusing on the individual, to looking towards the environmental and social influences, and on to encompassRead MoreEssay on Social Organized Crime Perspective1155 Words   |  5 PagesSocial Organized Crime Perspective In some communities organized crime is as much of a social institution as other legitimate functions. Often, the impact of organized crime can be hidden and not readily apparent to community members. In other cases the community may come to accept the organized criminal group for the benefits they provide. Understanding how organized crime meshes into the social fabric of a community is important to understanding how to fight against it. Just as important toRead MoreThe Social Problem Of Crime978 Words   |  4 Pagesfocuses on the social problem computer crime, but more specifically identity theft. In this paper, I analyzed six different articles from various sources. I chose cyber crime as my topic because I have an interest in computers and coding. I also like to watch documentaries and a television show on cybercrime scene investigations. Analyzing articles on this topic will help me develop further knowledge on this topic and how it is considered a social problem in our soc iety. Computer crime refers to anyRead MoreFor All We Think We Know About Crime There Is Still Much1085 Words   |  5 PagesFor all we think we know about crime there is still much we do not. Where we find crime, we find motives and this leads to the action of committing the crime. An area that we can look at in sociology that helps explain this idea is the knowledge of control theory. This theory helps uncover what processes or environments lead to a life of criminal acts while at the same time it allows for a chance to learn about our world from a social perspective. It will be important to investigate what in factRead MoreTheory Of Peacemaking Criminology1732 Words   |  7 Pagesof the 1960s and 1970s and is grounded in the way of philosophy and peace (Klenowski, 2009). The 1960s and 1970s were a time of war and revolution in the United States and persistent public opposition to the Vietnam War--coupled with political and social unrest caused by the distrust in big business, racism , sexism, and poverty in North America-- created the foundation for a generation of scholars (Chambliss, Tifft, Sullivan, Quinney, Pepinsky et al) and political pioneers (Martin Luther King Jr.Read MoreThe Media And Its Effect On The Society957 Words   |  4 Pagesloyalty (Vaughn, 2013). The media emphasizes that the rising intensity of the rivalry is the main factor that is resulting in the increase of gang activities, but the lack of questioning by the media on the possible causal factors that lead to the crime limits the understanding of the motives. The media misplaces confidence in the judgments of the SPD, by only questioning for details of the specific shooting and not the factors that may have caused it. The media simply accepting the SPD s claim thatRead MoreTheories of Crime Causation: Trait Theory and Rational Choice Theory1377 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Theories of Crime Causation: Trait Theory and Rational Choice Theory Introduction Theories of crime causation get to the fundamental characteristics of human nature. Theories of crime causation can be separated into trait theories and choice theories. Both types of theories make valid points about the causes of crime, yet they are have different implications for preventing the causes of crime. Thesis: Trait theories and choice theories both assume that humans are self-interested, but their conceptions

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Week Lesson Free Essays

Chamberlain College of Nursing. Transcript Organization and Time Management Starting a new venture can be exciting and challenging. You’re pleased to begin a new phase In your life, yet concerned about how you’ll handle all of the new responsibilities. We will write a custom essay sample on Week Lesson or any similar topic only for you Order Now You may already have a Job, family. And other commitments, and now you’ve added school to the list. Are there enough hours in the day? One way to answer this question is to take a serious look at how much time you Penn working, sleeping, caring for your family, and engaging in outside activities. Ask yourself what could be consolidated, eliminated, or delegated to someone else to allow you more time for school. The Question As a nurse, you already have many organizational and time management skills that you put to use every day in your job. Think about your skills, and then click to view the answer. Your Answer The Expert Says If you are a staff nurse, each morning you check the assignment board to see which tenants you’ll care for that day, gather your report sheets, and enter the conference room. You’ll listen to reports focusing on the Important issues and Jotting down notes to help you remember the Items later In the day. Chances are that you have a system for taking report that even involves writing the important issues in certain locations on your report sheet for easy retrieval later. As you leave the conference room, you’re thinking about meds due in the next hour and organizing your medication cart. You aka rounds on your patients and do assessments next. Whether you use a written list or a mental one, you’ve already determined what Important events need to be taken care of during your shift. Who Is going to surgery and needs the preoperative checklist completed? Who is going home and needs discharge teaching and confirmation of transportation? Who is a flirt-day posts patient and needs the dressing changed and to be up in a chair? Who needs blood? On top of all that, you’re prepared for the unexpected admissions or emergencies. You know who your aide is for the day and what you’ll be delegating to that person. You then remember that you have a staff meeting at 1 p. M. , so you’ll need to plan your schedule a little differently today to make time to attend that Important meeting. The day doesn’t end when you’re done at work. Tonight is your son’s hockey game, so you’ll be there after work. See? You already have much experience organizing and managing your time! How can you use all those great skills to promote success as an online student? Compare How to cite Week Lesson, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

World Customs Organization Essay Sample free essay sample

In modern nowadays universe economic system we have unfastened market with free trage. we can see globalisation. internationalisation. integrating between states. These mentioned forses are considered to be more positive than negative. Whenever with international trade here arises differencies between trading states: different criterions. restrictions. demands. nomenclature systems. To do trade easier. awaid or to assist work out struggles arised between member states here come WCO – World Customs Organization. The organization’s activities include work in countries covering the development of planetary criterions. the simplification and harmonisation of Customs processs. trade supply concatenation security. the facilitation of international trade. the sweetening of Customs enforcement and conformity activities. anti-counterfeiting and buccaneering enterprises. public-private partnerships. unity publicity. and sustainable planetary Customs capacity edifice activities. T he WCO is the lone international organic structure dedicated entirely to international imposts and surround control affairs. In my work I tried briefy owerview WCO organisation: ends. history. construction. members. working Fieldss. few of import paperss issued by this organisation. 1. Basic information1. 1. Vision StatementTo be the voice of Customss and the Global Centre of Excellence for the development and bringing of effectual. efficient. and modern Customs processs and criterions. international cooperation. cognition and capacity edifice. to run into the demands of authoritiess and society for a better universe by being airy. relevant and indispensable. 1. 2 Mission Statement As an intergovernmental organisation. the WCO is the Centre of excellence that provides leading in Customs affairs at the international degree and advises Customs disposals worldwide on direction patterns. tools and techniques to heighten their capacity to implement efficient and effectual cross-border controls along with standardised and consonant processs to ease legitimate trade and travel and to interdict illicit minutess and activities. 1. 3 WCO Goals Goal 1 – International Co-operation and Information SharingThe WCO provides a forum for international co-operation to advance greater connectivity and more harmonious interaction. including the exchange of information and experience and the designation of best patterns. between Member disposals. international organisations and other relevant stakeholders. Goal 2 – Harmonization and Simplification of Customs Systems and Procedures The WCO develops. maintains and promotes a series of internationally agreed conventions. other instruments and best-practice attacks to accomplish harmonisation and simplification of Customs systems and processs. Goal 3 – Compliance and Enforcement The WCO supports Members through activities in the countries of commercial fraud. drug trafficking. money laundering. IPR and other related offenses. through the development of conformity and enforcement tools and intelligence sharing via the Customs Enforcement Network ( CEN ) for the protection of society in the countries of public wellness and safety. environmental offenses. and containment of possible pandemics. Goal 4 – Trade Facilitation The WCO promotes the Revised Kyoto Convention to help Members on trade facilitation affairs. The WCO will go on to work with other international organisations. including the World Trade Organization to back up its Trade Facilitation Negotiating Group with advice and audiences to further better apprehension of WCO trade facilitation instruments and tools. Goal 5 – Supply Chain Security and Facilitation The WCO enhances Customs-to-Customs webs and Customs-to-Business partnerships in a meaningful and reciprocally good manner. through continued duologue with its Members and its Business spouses to procure and ease the international trade supply concatenation. including coordinated Border Management in co-operation with other boundary line bureaus. Goal 6 – Capacity Building The WCO provides a scope of capacity edifice. preparation and proficient aid and unity programmes to increase the capacity of Member Customs disposals to lend efficaciously to national development ends. in partnership with international organisations and the private sector. Goal 7 – Promotion and Marketing The WCO promotes the strategic involvements and markets the function and part of the WCO and the wider international Customs community. through co-operation. communicating and partnership with authoritiess. other international and regional organisations. giver bureaus and the private sector. Goal 8 – Research and Analysis The WCO conducts research and analysis into new visions. issues and tendencies of strategic importance to the WCO and Member disposals. in co-operation with research establishments. Goal 9 – Good Governance and Use of ResourcesThe WCO manages and administers its homo and fiscal resources in a cost-efficient. transparent and responsible mode. based on a long-run vision for Customs disposals and the WCO and an consciousness of the international environment and drivers. All information above is from WCO web page World Wide Web. wcoomd. org. 2. HistoryThe history of the WCO began in 1947 when the 13 European Governments represented in the Committee for European Economic Co-operation agreed to put up a Study Group. This Group examined the possibility of set uping one or more inter-European Customs Unions based on the rules of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ) . In 1948. the Study Group set up two commissions – an Economic Committee and a Customs Committee. The Economic Committee was the predecessor of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) . the Customs Committee became the Customs Co-operation Council ( CCC ) ( Government of Chile – National Customs Service. 2013a ) . In 1952. the Convention officially set uping the CCC came into force. The Council is the regulating organic structure of the CCC and the inaugural Session of the Council was held in Brussels on 26 January 1953. Representatives of 17 European states attended the first Council Session of the CCC. Af ter old ages of rank growing. in 1994 the Council adopted the working name World Customs Organization. to more clearly reflect its passage to a genuinely planetary intergovernmental establishment. It is now the voice of 177 Customss disposals which operate on all continents and stand for all phases of economic development. Today. WCO Members are responsible for treating more than 98 % of all international trade ( World Customs Organization. 2012e ) . 3. Structure of the administrationThe chief organic structure in the World Customs Organization is Secretariat. It takes highest possition in organisation‘s hierarchy. The WCO Secretariat is headed by a Secretary General. who is elected by the WCO rank to a five twelvemonth term. The current WCO Secretary General is Kunio Mikuriya from Japan. who took office on 1 January 2009. The WCO is governed by the Council. which brings together all Members of the Organization one time a twelvemonth. in a meeting chaired by an elective Chairperson. Additional strategic and direction counsel is provided by the Policy Commission and the Finance Committee. Several WCO commissions. such as the Harmonized System Committee. the Permanent Technical Committee. the Technical Committee on Customs Valuation. Technical Committee on Rules of Origin. the Capacity Building Committee. and the SAFE Working Group. supply a platform for developing instruments and best patterns on imposts competences ( The Fr ee Encyclopedia Wikipedia. 2012 ) . In the undermentioned portion of work here will be shortly described organisation‘s construction boddies and their maps. SecretariatThe duty of the WCO Secretariat is to supply quality. independent support to WCO member administations on all the activities that are carried out by the Organization. and to function the WCO with professionalism. nonpartisanship. transparence and unity. The WCO Secretariat. located in Brussels. has 151 staff members and is headed by a Secretary General. Its chief responsibilities are to provide proficient. logistical and professional support to the assorted working organic structures established by the Council. to supply capacity edifice and proficient aid and to develop and keep tools and instruments. The Secretariat staff includes persons stand foring over 45 nationalities. most of which are professional Customs officers. There is besides a figure of forces working in support services. such as IT services. finance. human resources and linguistic communication services. The on the job linguistic communications of the WCO are English and French ( World Customs Organization ( 2013c ) . Figure 2: Secretariat construction Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wcoomd. org/en/about-us/wco-secretariat/the-secretariat. aspx CouncilThe Council was established by the Convention set uping a Customs Co-operation Council. with the purpose of procuring the highest grade of harmoniousness and uniformity in the Customs systems of Member Governments. and particularly to analyze the jobs built-in in the development and betterment of Customs techniques and Customs statute law in connexion therewith. It is the supreme organic structure of the World Customs Organization and. as such. it takes the concluding determinations sing the Organization’s work and activities. All WCO organic structures study to the Council. The Council operates with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. Policy Comission The Policy Commission was established to move as a dynamic maneuvering group to the Council. The competency of the Policy Commission is defined as follows in Council Decision No. 284: â€Å"The Commission shall concern itself with wide policy inquiries relevant to the WCO’s activities. The Commission shall move as a dynamic Steering Group to the Council. It shall originate surveies on the policies. patterns. and processs of the WCO with the aim of helping the Council to accomplish the wide purposes of its activities† . Finance Committee The Finance Committee acts under the overall way of the WCO Council with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. Its function and duty is to supply support and advice to the Policy Commission and Council in budgetary and fiscal affairs. A specific duty of the Finance Committee is to analyze the estimations of all of the Organization’s resources and utilizations for the undermentioned fiscal twelvemonth and fix a study to the Council thereon. The estimations shall include an estimated Net income and Loss Account. a statement on hard currency flow and an estimated Balance Sheet. They shall cover all operations envisaged for the fiscal twelvemonth concerned. Audit CommitteeThe function of the Audit Committee. as portion of the on-going systematic reappraisal of the WCO control environment and administration processs. is to supervise the Audit map and rede the Policy Commission and the Council every bit good as the WCO Secretary General in relation to the operation and the development of this map. The Audit Committee acts under the overall way of the WCO Council with administrative support provided by the WCO Secretariat. The Audit Committee assists the Policy Commission and the Council in carry throughing their inadvertence duty with regard to: overall execution of the WCO Strategic Plan ; budget allotment procedure and public presentation measuring policies and patterns of the Organization ; efficient and effectual programme direction and the attainment of aims. as outlined in the Strategic Plan ; protection of resources and their efficient and effectual application against stated precedences and the designation and extenuation of impor tant hazards ( World Customs Organization ( 2013d ) . The World Customs Organisation to cover with international trade issues has three Fieldss of organic structures: Duty and Trade Affairs. Procedures and Facilitation. Enforcement and Compliance. Each of organic structure in its construction has commissions. working groups. different undertaking groups. they deals with issues. which are attributed their competencies. Bellow in the tabular array here is full construction of these three mentioned sections. Duty and Trade Affairs| Procedures and Facilitation| Enforcement and Compliance| Harmonized System CommitteeHarmonized System Review Sub-CommitteeHarmonized System Working PartyTechnical Committee on Rules of Origin ( TCRO ) Technical Committee on Customs ValuationFocus Group on Transfer PricingThe Scientific Sub-Committee| Permanent Technical CommitteeInformation Management Sub-CommitteeThe Revised Kyoto Convention Management CommitteeIstanbul Convention Administrative CommitteeContracting Parties to the ATA ConventionAdministrative Committee for the Customs Convention on Containers. 1972UPU/WCO Contact CommitteeSAFE Working GroupAd Hoc Group on Globally Networked Customs ( GNC ) Air Cargo Security ( ACS ) Technical Experts GroupContact Committee for the WCO/IATA/ICAO Guidelines on API| Enforcement CommitteeWorking Group on Commercial FraudGIIS Project GroupCustoms Enforcement Network Management TeamWCO Counterfeiting and Piracy GroupElectronic Crime Expert GroupGlobal RILO Meetings| Table 2: Structure of: Duty and Trade Affairs. Procedures and Facilitation and Enforcement and Compliance sections. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wcoomd. org/en/about-us/wco-working-bodies. aspx 4. WCO membersWCO has 179 Members. three-fourthss of which are developing states. are responsible for pull offing more than 98 % of universe trade. They are divided into 6 parts ( World Customs Organization 2013a ) . Figure 1: WCO members provinces and regional dividing of them Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wcoomd. org/en/about-us/wco-members/membership. aspx As it was mentioned earlier. in WCO here is six parts to which are divided member provinces: 1 ) North of Africa. Near and Middle East 2 ) West and Central Africa3 ) East and Southern Africa4 ) South America. North America. Central America and the Caribbean 5 ) Europe6 ) Far East. South and South East Asia. Australasia and the Pacific Islands Latest accepted states in few recent old ages are these members: Djibouti 2008-03-19Belize 2008-04-22Bosnia and Herzegovina 2008-07-04Guinea-Bissau 2010-08-19Sao Tome and Principe 2009-09-23Vanuatu 2009-11-17Somalia 2012-04-10South Sudan 2012-07-18Poland go a member of World Customs Organization in 1974-07-17 ( World Customs Organization. 2013b ) . World Customs Organization Member Administrations AFGHANISTAN ( Islamic Republic of ) | Cape Verde| Greece| Ghana| Paraguay| The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia| Albania| Central Africa Republic| Guatemala| Luxembourg| Peru| Timor – Leste| Algeria| Chad| Guinea| Macao. China| Philippines| Trinidad and Tobago| Andorra| Chile| Guinea-Bissau| Madagascar| Poland| Togo| Angola| China| Guyana| Malawi| Portugal| Tonga| Argentina| Colombia| Haiti| Malaysia| Qatar| Tunisia| Armenia|Comoros| Hong Kong. China| Maldives| Romania| Turkey| Australia| Congo ( Dem. Rep. of the ) | Hungary| Mali| Russian Federation| Turkmenistan| Austria| Congo ( Rep. of the ) | Iceland| Malta| Rwanda| Uganda| Azerbaijan| Costa Rica| India| Mauritania| Saint Lucia| Ukraine| Bahamas| Cote d’lvoire| Indonesia| Mauritius| Samoa| United Arab Emirates| Bahrain| Croatia| Iran ( Islamic Rep. of| Mexico| Sao Tome And Principe| United Kingdom| Bangladesh| Cuba| Iraq| Moldova| Saudi Arabia| United States| Barbados| Cyprus| Ireland| Mongolia| Senegal| Uruguay| Belarus| Czech Republic| Israel| Montenegro| Serbia| Uzbekistan| Belgium| Denmark| Italy| Morocco| Seychelles| Vanuatu| Belize| Djibouti| Jamaica| Mozambique| Sierra Leone| Venezuela| Benin| Dominican Republic| Japan| Myanmar| Singapore| Vietnam| Bermuda| Ecuador| Jordan| Namibia| Slovakia| Yemen| Bhutan| Egypt| Kazakhstan| Nepal| Slovenia| Zambia|Bolivia| Eritrea| Kenya| Netherlands| South Africa| Zimbabwe| Bosnia and Herzegovina | Estonia| Korea ( Rep. of ) | Netherlands Antilles| Spain| | Botswana| Ethiopia| Kuwait| New Zealand| Sri Lanka| | Brazil| Federal Rep. Of Yugoslavia| Kyrgyzstan| Nicaragua| Sudan| | Brunei Darussalam| Fiji| Lao People’s Democratic Republic| Niger| Swaziland| | Bulgaria| Finland| Latvia| Nigeria| Sweden| | Burkina Faso| France| Lebanon| Norway| Switzerland| | Burundi| Gabon| Lesotho| Oman| Syrian Arab Republic| | Cambodia| Gambia| Liberia| Pakistan| Tajikistan| |Cameroon| Georgia| Libyan Arab Jamahiriya| Panama| Tanzania| | Canada| Germany| Lithuania| Papua New Guinea| Thailand| | Table 1: WCO members On 30 June 2007. the Council of the World Customs Organization ( WCO ) decided to accept the petition of the European Community to fall in the WCO as of 1st July 2007. This determination grants to the European Community rights and duties on an interim footing akin to those enjoyed by WCO Members. Full accession is possible one time an amendment to the Convention set uping a Customs Co-operation Council. leting economic and imposts brotherhoods to fall in is ratified by the 172 current Members of the administration. The WCO plays an of import function in advancing international imposts co-operation and turn toing new challenges for imposts and trade. It is profoundly involved in planing and implementing policies worldwide that integrate steps. which help guarantee supply concatenation security. combat forging. advance trade and development. every bit good as warrant efficient aggregation of imposts grosss. Membership of the WCO high spots and confirms the cardinal function and compete ncy of the Community in international treatments on imposts issues including imposts reform. Community engagement in the WCO focuses on the full spectrum of imposts issues. in peculiar the undermentioned wide countries: * Terminology and categorization in the model of the Consonant system ; * Origin of goods ; * Customs value ;* Simplification and harmonisation of imposts processs and trade facilitation ; * Development of supply concatenation security criterions ;* Development of IPR enforcement criterions ;* Capacity edifice for imposts modernization and reforms. including in the context of development cooperation ; * Mutual Administrative Assistance for the bar. probe and repression of imposts offenses. The European Commission is a undertaking party to several WCO Conventions. and contributes to the work of this administration. including by guaranting presence and coordination with the Member States in specifying and stand foring Community places in the relevant organic structures pull offing these conventions ( European Commission. 2013 ) . Besides European Union is member of other international administrations. as EGMONT GROUP| Egmont group|FATF| Financial Action Task Force|IFCBA| The International Federation of Customs Brokers Associations| IRU| International Road Transport Union|OECD| Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development| UNCTAD| United Nations Conference on Trade and Development| UNECE| United Nations Economic Commission for Europe|WTO| World Trade Organization| World Customs Organization in its being has issued many paperss refering to 1 ) terminology and categorization of goods. 2 ) rating. 3 ) beginning. 4 ) enforcement and conformity. 5 ) processs and facilitation. 6 ) capacity edifice. 7 ) unity and 8 ) research. In order to accomplish its aims. the WCO has adopted a figure of imposts instruments. including but non limited to the followers: 1 ) The International Convention on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System ( HS Convention ) was adopted in 1983 and came into force in 1988. The HS multipurpose goods terminology is used as the footing for imposts duties and for the digest of international trade statistics. It comprises about 5000 trade good groups. each identified by a six figure codification arranged in a legal and logical construction with chiseled regulations to accomplish unvarying categorization. The HS is besides used for many other intents affecting trade policy. regulations of beginning. monitoring of controlled goods. internal revenue enhancements. freight duties. conveyance statistics. quota controls. monetary value monitoring. digest of national histories. and economic research and analysis. 2 ) The International Convention on the Simplification and Harmonization of Customs processs ( revised Kyoto Convention or RKC ) was originally adopted in 1974 and was later revised in 1999 ; the revised Kyoto Convention came into force in 2006. The RKC comprises several cardinal regulating rules: transparence and predictability of imposts controls ; standardisation and simplification of the goods declaration and back uping paperss ; simplified processs for authorised individuals ; maximal usage of information engineering ; minimal necessary imposts control to guarantee conformity with ordinances ; usage of hazard direction and audit based controls ; coordinated intercessions with o ther boundary line bureaus ; and a partnership with the trade. It promotes trade facilitation and effectual controls through its legal commissariats that detail the application of simple yet efficient processs and besides contains new and obligatory regulations for its application. The WCO revised Kyoto Convention is sometimes confused with the Kyoto Protocol. which is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC or FCCC ) . 3 ) ATA Convention and the Convention on Temporary Admission ( Istanbul Convention ) . Both the ATA Convention and the Istanbul Convention are WCO instruments regulating impermanent admittance of goods. The ATA system. which is built-in to both Conventions. allows the free motion of goods across frontiers and their impermanent admittance into a imposts district with alleviation from responsibilities and revenue enhancements. The goods are covered by a individual papers known as the ATA carnet that is secured by an international warrant system. 4 ) The Arusha Declaration on Customs Integrity was adopted in 1993 and revised in 2003. The Arusha Declaration is a non-binding instrument which provides a figure of basic rules to advance unity and combat corruptness within imposts disposals. 5 ) The SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade was adopted in 2005. The SAFE Framework is a non-binding instrument that contains supply concatenation security and facilitation criterions for goods being traded internationally. enables integrated supply concatenation direction for all manners of conveyance. strengthens networking agreements between imposts disposals to better their capableness to observe bad cargos. promotes cooperation between imposts and the concern community through the Authorized Economic Operator ( AEO ) construct. and champions the seamless motion of goods through secure international trade supply ironss ( The Free Encyclopedia Wikipedia. 2012 and World Customs Organization: //www. wcoomd. org ) . DrumheadThe World Customs Organization ( WCO ) . established in 1952 as the Customs Co-operation Council ( CCC ) is an independent intergovernmental organic structure whose mission is to heighten the effectivity and efficiency of Customs disposals. Today. the WCO represents 179 Customss disposals across the Earth that jointly process about 98 % of universe trade. As the planetary Centre of Customs expertness. the WCO is the lone international organisation with competency in Customs affairs and can rightly name itself the voice of the international Customs community. The WCO’s regulating organic structure – the Council – relies on the competency and accomplishments of a Secretariat and a scope of proficient and consultative commissions to carry through its mission. As a forum for duologue and exchange of experiences between national Customs delegates. the WCO offers its Members a scope of Conventions and other international instruments. every bit good as proficien t aid and preparation services provided either straight by the Secretariat. or with its engagement. The Secretariat besides actively supports its Members in their enterprises to overhaul and construct capacity within their national Customs disposals. Besides the critical function played by the WCO in exciting the growing of legitimate international trade. its attempts to battle deceitful activities are besides recognized internationally. The partnership attack championed by the WCO is one of the keys to constructing Bridgess between Customs disposals and their spouses. By advancing the outgrowth of an honest. transparent and predictable Customs environment. the WCO straight contributes to the economic and societal wellbeing of its Members. Finally. in an international environment characterized by instability and the ever-present menace of terrorist activity. the WCO’s mission to heighten the protection of society and the national district. and to procure and ease international trade. takes on its full significance. Mentions Enclycopedija Britannica ( 2013 ) . â€Å"World Customs Organization ( WCO ) † Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/1134726/World-Customs-Organization-WCO European Commission ( 2013 ) . â€Å"Taxation and Customs Union: World Customs Organization† Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //ec. Europa. eu/taxation_customs/common/international_affairs/wco/index_en. htm Government of Chile – National Customs Service ( 2013a ) . â€Å"Mission and history of the WCO† Retrieved from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. aduana. cl/prontus_aduana_eng/site/artic/20070227/pags/20070227231225. html International Association of Conference Interpreters ( 2013 ) . â€Å"WCO – World Customs Organization† Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //aiic. net/page/6294 U. S. Customs and Border Protection ( 2013 ) â€Å"World Customs Organization Overview† Retrieved from:

Saturday, March 7, 2020

talibans women essays

taliban's women essays The article AFTER THE ATTACK; Extremists Put Own Twist on Faith written by Teresa Watanabe for Los Angeles Times states that the Afghanistans Taliban has committed crimes against women and girls. For six years the Feminist Majority Foundation has condemned Talibans crimes against women and the have been saying that in a country where so many people have no rights will create international instability. The organization opposes to widespread air strikes but also negotiations with the Taliban. They believe that human rights should be a priority in the moths to come. In 1996 the foundation started a campaign to stop gender apartheid and included Afghan women who under the ruling of Taliban they cant no longer work, attend to school, leave their homes or receive medical treatment. David Gibbs, an associate professor of political science at the University of Arizona and an expert on Afghanistan said that the international community should not accept groups that abuse women and girls. I believe that women should have equal rights as men anywhere in the world and reading about Talibans actions against women irritates me. Coming from the West it seems unbelievable that women cant work or go to schools. My mother studied a career and worked in the 70s and nobody opposed to it. Begun in 1996, the foundation's Campaign to Stop Gender Apartheid has been the nation's loudest voice in protesting the treatment of Afghan women who, under the ruling Taliban, have been stripped of basic human rights. They are no longer allowed to work, to attend school, to leave their homes or to receive medical treatment. groups that mistreat women and girls should be ostracized by the international community. "We have been saying for years that a country where so many people have no rights will create international instability, that human rights should be a priority in the weeks and months to come. ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

The Effect of Price Elasticity of Toyota on Consumer Consumption Essay

The Effect of Price Elasticity of Toyota on Consumer Consumption - Essay Example 5 contains results, discussion, and conclusion but these three documents are still subject to major modifications depending on document 2 and level of analysis required. Background to Research Problem The automotive industry is among the most competitive industries in the world. Consumer decisions to purchase vehicles are often influenced by a wide array of factors that impact the industry. These include, safety, comfort, fuel efficiency, and price (Jeihani and Sibdari, 2010:1). Though factors such as fuel efficiency are certainly critical in consumers buying decisions in the current economic environment where gas prices frequently fluctuate, research shows that though the demand for gas efficient cars such as the hybrid cars have been high, sales have not picked up as expected (Read, 2012; Tuttle, 2012). This is mainly attributed to the high prices at which these vehicles are purchased, and therefore implies that price is a core contributor to demand and consumer purchase decisions when it comes to purchasing a car. Understanding how price changes alter the quantity demanded is crucial to decision makers as they can be able to understand how responsive consumers would be to certain price changes (Jazayeri and Jazayeri, 2011: 102; Rossi, 1995: 17; Bernstein Research, 2007). Price elasticity is an important element when introducing products in a competitive market (Hauser, 1998). As quoted from the book Principles of Economics by Alfred Marshall (1920), â€Å"the elasticity (or receptiveness) of demand in a market is significant according as the amount demanded increases much or little for a given fall in price, and diminishes much or little for a given rise in price" (pp. 15). Parkin, Powell, and Matthews (2002) noted that the following affect the elasticity of price for... This research will begin with the statement that the automotive industry is among the most competitive industries in the world. Consumer decisions to purchase vehicles are often influenced by a wide array of factors that impact the industry. These include, safety, comfort, fuel efficiency, and price. Though factors such as fuel efficiency are certainly critical in consumers buying decisions in the current economic environment where gas prices frequently fluctuate, research shows that though the demand for gas efficient cars such as the hybrid cars have been high, sales have not picked up as expected. This is mainly attributed to the high prices at which these vehicles are purchased, and therefore implies that price is a core contributor to demand and consumer purchase decisions when it comes to purchasing a car. Understanding how price changes alter the quantity demanded is crucial to decision makers as they can be able to understand how responsive consumers would be to certain price changes. Price elasticity is an important element when introducing products in a competitive market. As quoted from the book Principles of Economics by Alfred Marshall, â€Å"the elasticity of demand in a market is significant according as the amount demanded increases much or little for a given fall in price, and diminishes much or little for a given rise in price". Parkin, Powell, and Matthews noted that the following affect the elasticity of price for a certain commodity: availability of substitute goods; percentage of income; necessity; duration; brand loyalty; and who pays.